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From water, potential energy that becomes sustainable energy

Since its origins, the hydroelectric power source has been and still is among the most important and very first sources of renewable energy in the world. In Italy, it covers 10-15% of the national energy needs. The water that flows in rivers and canals has always been used by the man in his activities.
The hydroelectric turbines produced by Misa belong to highly customized constructions, adapted to the most varied technical, landscape, geometric and phonometric variables required by the installation site.
As known, four large groups of machines can be identified according to the head and the usable flow rate: PELTON, FRANCIS, KAPLAN and CROSS-FLOW.
In the field of small flow rates, hydraulic screw turbines and micro-turbines are placed very well.

Hydraulic characteristics of the main turbines

»  Pelton, suitable for small capacity and large heads
»  Francis, suitable for medium capacity and heads of a few hundred meters
»  Kaplan, used in the presence of large capacity and small heads
»  Bulbo, versatile evolution of Kaplan
»  Cross Flow, suitable for small capacity and heads up to a hundred meters
»  Hydraulic screw, they are often used on small heads and small capacity
»  Mini turbines, customized machines, generally for stand-alone installations


Pelton turbines are mainly used in alpine hydroelectric basins, for medium/high water heads that range from 50 to 1200 meters. The monolithic stainless steel impeller is keyed directly on the generator shaft. The multi-jet distributor allows the best capacity regulation in order to optimize the energy efficiency of the entire machine. The main advantage of these turbines consists in the possibility of maintaining a high efficiency both with maximum and minimum capacities. They can be with horizontal axis and in the combination up to three jets, or with vertical axis in the combination of 4 to 6 jets.


Francis turbines are widely used. They exploit the difference in water between ten to a few hundred meters. The water is distributed on the wheel through a spiral box and its predistributor. The distributor, usually with adjustable blades, directs the water towards the impeller blades. They can be considered small, medium and large, according to their power. The efficiency of these machines is high over a wide range of capacities. They can also be realized with the horizontal or vertical axis, based on the size of the site.


Kaplan turbines allow numerous applications, even in very different sectors. They are used in the presence of generally small heads and up to 50 meters. They take advantage of the large flow of the river, which can reach up to a hundred cubic meters per second. They can be built with the vertical, horizontal or inclined axis, as well as in a dry or wet room. The construction, based on the head and the capacity, can have a fixed distributor and adjustable blades, in this case, the turbine is of simple adjustment, also called mono-regulating. When both the distributor and the blades are variable in running, then the turbine becomes bi-regulating. With the double regulation, it is possible to obtain greater advantages, on the capacities modulation and on the heads. In this case, the performance curve remains constant practically over almost the entire range of capacities, so as to obtain a better degree of efficiency.

Cross Flow-Banki

Cross Flow-Banki turbines are suitable for working with heads between 4 and 60 meters and are also characterized by their versatility mainly due to the special crossflow. The water enters from the upper side, crosses the impeller axis, and comes out again from the lower side, increasing the efficiency of the turbine. The peculiar characteristics of these turbines are the simple construction and robustness, which allow a modular and low-cost construction. The water passes through the distributor and the entrance chamber, specifically divided into a third or two-thirds, favors operation with both small and medium capacities. Under maximum capacity conditions, the turbine works with the two chambers in parallel. The generosity and flexibility of this turbine are also determined by the uniform performance over the entire flow range.


Bulb turbines are made from Kaplan turbines and are much simpler. They are usually used for heads of a few meters. The peculiarity of these machines lies in the bulb, immersed in water, where the alternator for energy production is located.

Hydraulic screw

Hydraulic screws are also known as Archimedes' wheel. They invert the operating principle and take advantage from the potential difference of the falling water, from the highest point until it flows again in the course of natural water.
They are used for heads up to 10 meters and capacities up to 6 mc/s.

Mini turbine

Mini turbines are the ideal solution to have electricity especially in those areas not subject to the distribution network. They derive from series production, but constructively are much simpler. The regulation is done with variable speed drives. These also reduce the consumption of traditional fuels avoiding air pollution.


All turbines are developed and manufactured by Misa, which use its many years of experience acquired over the years, both in the design and execution of large water pumping station and in the production of electricity, for the public and private sector. Misa also proposes all the necessary equipment for the construction of complete hydroelectric power plants, such as for example penstocks, valves, LV/MV electrical panels, automation systems, as well as remote supervision and monitoring. 
In addition to what is described, MISA also offers consulting services,
analysis of hydrogeological characteristics, preliminary studies,
executive design of the whole plant, as well as management and maintenance of all the built works, including the surveillance contract. The control and supervision of the control unit takes place remotely via modem and dedicated software.


The guarantee of the Quality System according to UNI EN ISO 9001, 14001 and OHSAS 18001 standards are synonymous with professionalism and full respect for the environment.
The SOA certification in the OG9 class, category IV, “Plants for the production of electricity”, confirms a number of hydroelectric power plants built over the years, concluded with a certificate of regular execution or with regular testing, which guarantees a high level of recognized results.
Misa is able to face any problem related to the world of energy production and water pumping in general thanks to the professionalism, passion for the environment, ideas and further special SOA qualifications, concerning 10 different categories.


The turbines produced by Misa are special customized machines, suitable for the most varied applications and with excellent performance in wide ranges of capacities and heads.
3D solid modeling, FEM structural analysis, a selected rotation speed together with the fluid dynamic study C.F.D. are the determining factors capable of guaranteeing a high quality standard, required for H24 services. Checks and tests during the construction phases, even in the presence of the customer, optimize the installation phase, guaranteeing immediate energy production.
An Italian heart beats inside our turbines.
For more information on our axial pumps, consult the brochure or contact us directly.
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